Historical Pagan Deities as Satanic Archetypes
Deities OverviewChristians associate a number of historical (often pagan) deities with being 'The Devil'. These may a number of Egyptian, Roman and Greek pagan Gods, and others, including Ba'al, Set, Aten the Sun God, Lucifer, Pan and many others. Please see the link below for a 'complete' list and related historical analysis.
Some of these Gods have been historically seen as different aspects of the Supreme Being. Ironically, some Christians and Satanists are both panentheists and monists. The reason for much of the debate on the subject as to whether a deity being worshipped is in fact Satan or not results in the fact that the followers of the deities in question do not see their chosen God as the Biblical definition of Satan, with the relationship to the Hebrew God and Jesus. We examine below some of the deities commonly associated with being 'Satan', and examine the cultural origin of the deity and those that use the deity in their belief system. It should be noted that whilst there may well be links between the various deities and Theistic or indeed LaVey Satanism, this may be a later historical meaning and association, not something that was conceptually part of the religions of the time. Some of the religions or groups are not necessarily associated with the Church of Satan even if the Church of Satan itself used them for inspiration. Indeed there are many other types of Left Hand Path group besides the Church of Satan. Christians have a track record of labelling and condemning anything non-Christian and especially pagan as being Satanic. Other religions have done the same in the past with their rivals, perhaps in a bid to keep from losing followers to their competitors.
The worship of Aten, for example, in Ancient Egypt approximately 3500 years ago, is regarded as one of the first monotheistic religions. It was short lived, and fizzled out, on account of the 18th Dynasty Pharaoh Akhenaten's obsession with demonstrative sacrifices of food, and insistance on having his people build a new city, resulting in starvation and ill health of his city. Whilst monotheistic, he elevated his and his wife's status as near God-like, and the human representatives of Aten on earth. Having forced Eyptians to break with tradition and worship this particular deity, and caused huge suffering as part of his religious revolution, they tried to erase him from history after his death. It is claimed by some that Psalm 104: 20-30 is actually based on a poem by Akhenaten to Aten, a declaration of love for his God, but was appropriated by Christians and used in a Christian context.
It could be argued that Aten was not the 'Devil' as such, but just one of the pagan Gods that the ancient Egyptians worshipped, that happened to be the enforced flavour of the month for a while in Egypt.
The Sun God has been worshipped in various forms throughout history and pre-history, and the exact practices and beliefs of course vary slightly.
Lucifer:Lucifer is the word meaning 'light bearer' (from lux, lucis, "light", and ferre, "to bear, bring"), a Roman astrological term for the "Morning Star" the planet Venus. The word Lucifer was the translation of the Septuagint Greek heosphoros, ("dawn-bearer"; cf. Greek phosphoros, "light-bearer"; itself the translation of the Hebrew Helel ben Shahar, Son of Dawn), used by Jerome in the Vulgate, having mythologically the same meaning as Prometheus who brought fire to humanity.
Below is a 2nd-century sculpture of the moon goddess Selene accompanied by Hesperus and Phosphorus: the corresponding Latin names are Luna, Vesper and Lucifer.
One form of phosphorus (white phosphorus) emits a faint glow upon exposure to oxygen (hence its Greek derivation and the Latin 'light-bearer', meaning the planet Venus as Hesperus or "Morning Star").
Two illustrations of Lucifer (as Satan) by Gustave Doré's for the 17th Century work Paradise Lost by John Milton, are shown below. These drawings may well have contributed in part to today's notion of Lucifer being Satan and a fallen angel.
A statue of one of twelve Lucifers on the (Catholic) Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc in Olomouc (Czech Republic), built in the 18th Century, is shown below.
Source: Michal Manas.
A statue of Lucifer, by Guillaume Geefs (Cathedral of St. Paul, Liège, Belgium), from the 19th Century, is shown below. It may well have been inspired by Gustave Doré's illustrations.
Source: Luc Viator
Clearly the depiction and concept of Lucifer has changed dramatically over the millennia, from the Roman era to the pseudo-Christian vision of the last three centuries.
The Sigil of Lucifer, used by Theistic Satanists and some Luciferians and Gnostic Luciferians, is shown below.
Lucifer is known as the 'God of Morning Light', the bringer of illumination, wisdom and knowledge, etc. and has its origins with the Roman God Venus. There are many types of Luciferianism so it is easy to confuse them. This section aims to explain the difference between the Luciferian Sects. Historically speaking, there is no direct connection between the Roman God Venus and Luciferianism as it exists today. Most Luciferian Sects do not recognise Jesus Christ with the exception of Gnostic Luciferianism and those historical followers of Saint Lucifer (Lucifer Calaritanu). Strictly speaking, Gnostic Luciferianism recognises the Gnostic Jesus as opposed to the New Testament Christian view of Jesus. Also Gnostic Luciferianism differs from all other forms of Luciferianism in that it regards the creator of the world and indeed Universe as Demiurge, whereas other types of Luciferianism usually associate this with the main deity they worship (e.g. the Grand Architect of the Universe and purveyor of wisdom). Gnostic Luciferians may also surprise some Christians as much of what they say appears almost identical to that of Gnostic Christianity or progressive Christianity. Clearly it depends on context and at other times Gnostic Luciferians may also sound like Satanists.
Luciferianism is often identified as an auxiliary of Satanism, due to the popular identification of Lucifer with Satan. Some Luciferians accept this identification or consider Lucifer as the light bearer aspect of Satan, or even as equivalent to Satan, and thus could properly be called Theistic Satanists. Others reject it, arguing that Lucifer is a more positive ideal than Satan. They are inspired by the ancient myths of Egypt, Rome and Greece, Gnosticism and/or traditional Western occultism.
It is possible that the Nag Hammadi library's 'On the Origin of the World' describes 'Lucifer'. Whilst there is no explicit mention of Lucifer, it does describe the 'Man of Light', a type of immortal banished from his realm, who brings light. is a reference to 'Lucifer', although no explicit mention of Lucifer is made in the scroll, and it is not a Christian text, but it is possible it could have influenced Christian thinkers in later centuries.
And when he had come to know in truth that an immortal man of light had been existing before him, he was greatly disturbed; for he had previously said to all the gods and their angels, "It is I who am god. No other one exists apart from me." For he had been afraid they might know that another had been in existence before him, and might condemn him. But he, being devoid of understanding, scoffed at the condemnation and acted recklessly. He said, "If anything has existed before me, let it appear, so that we may see its light."
And immediately, behold! Light came out of the eighth heaven above and passed through all of the heavens of the earth. When the prime parent saw that the light was beautiful as it radiated, he was amazed. And he was greatly ashamed. As that light appeared, a human likeness appeared within it, very wonderful. And no one saw it except for the prime parent and Pronoia, who was with him. Yet its light appeared to all the forces of the heavens. Because of this they were all troubled by it....
Now when Adam of Light conceived the wish to enter his light - i.e., the eighth heaven - he was unable to do so because of the poverty that had mingled with his light. Then he created for himself a vast eternal realm. And within that eternal realm he created six eternal realms and their adornments, six in number, that were seven times better than the heavens of chaos and their adornments. Now all these eternal realms and their adornments exist within the infinity that is between the eighth heaven and the chaos below it, being counted with the universe that belongs to poverty.
Traditional Luciferianism was a (heretical) pantheistic thirteenth-century German sect which held that Lucifer should be worshiped as the ruler of the material world. This concept of the material world as Lucifer's domain was, most likely, taken from Catholic Christian doctrine and his titles in the (presumably Latin Vulgate) Bible as 'the god of this world' in 2 Corinthians 4:4 and 'lord of this world' in John 12:31. The KJV version is shown below.
John 12:31 (KJV):
Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out.
2 Corinthians 4:4 (KJV):
In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them.
Presumably this Sect regarded Jesus as a false messiah, although this is speculation and I do not have any further information on this.
Lucifer is the God described by the famous Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, Albert Pike, in the Scottish Rite book Morals and Dogma.
In the Instructions to the 23 Supreme Councils of the World, July 14, 1889, Albert Pike was recorded by A.C. De La Rive in La Femme et l'Enfant dans la FrancMaconnerie Universelle on page 588 as having said that Freemasonry in its purest form should embody the Luceferian Doctrine and that Lucifer was the real God, not Adonay. Adonay is the Hebrew word for Lord, used to describe either the Hebrew God 'Yaweh' or Jesus Christ.
In a letter dated 15 August 1871, addressed to Grand Master Guiseppie Mazzini 33° (Archives British Museum, London, England), Albert Pike wrote that atheism and nihilism shall destroy theism (Christianity) and civilisation, unleashing bloody terror.
Other quotes from Morals and Dogma about Jesus can be found at the links below. Pike regarded Jesus at most to be a man, and accused him of being an atheist, a blasphemer, the god Hercules, the founder of a religion of hate etc.
An extract from Albert Pike's Morals and Dogma book is shown at the link below, containing references to the Greek God Prometheus.
Some classically-educated Freemasons and those inspired by their work claim to use 'Luciferian' in the scholarly sense of 'bringing enlightenment', invoking the Greek deity Prometheus. Whether these individuals were Gnostic Luciferians or just Prometheus worshippers is not certain. The implication from Albert Pike's writings in general is that he was some manner of polytheist, interested in Egyptian mysticism, with a particular anti-Christian reactionary stance. Whilst literal interpretation of his words might assume he was referring to Lucifer as a literal deity, like Adonay, those who are familiar with Pike's works would interpret this metaphorically, meaning Lucifer as a reflection of the light of the self and the light of Wisdom. Whether he was viewing the 'Grand Architect' as being the 'God' he hated or not is unclear. He used Baphomet as a symbol of resistance against Chrsitianity so perhaps Lucifer was used in the same way. Pro-Catholic polemicists linked such masonic usage with Sects whom they believe were worshipping Lucifer, which they believed have had persistent groups of followers since the Middle Ages.
In Greek mythology, Prometheus (in Ancient Greek meaning "forethought") is a Titan known for his wily intelligence, who stole fire from Zeus and gave it to mortals for their use. His myth has been treated by a number of ancient sources, in which Prometheus is credited with (or blamed for) playing a pivotal role in the early history of humankind. Prometheus is associated with technology and science, embodying some qualities of the Theistic Satan. However, Prometheus is not generally worshipping by Theistic Satanists or pagans, but is worshipped by some modern Gnostic Luciferians.
Modern Luciferianism is a similar theology to Traditional Luciferianism, usually modelled on a panentheistic view of Lucifer as being all encompassing essence of the Universe (an essence or God that pervades the Universe, but which makes up each person, each person having the potential to become 'God' or 'a God'). The lines between Modern Luciferianism and Gnostic Luciferianism are often somewhat blurred. Some examples of Modern Luciferian groups are listed below.
Luciferianism is the product of 'religious engineering', which sociologist William Sims Bainbridge defines as "the conscious, systematic, skilled creation of a new religion" in his book New Religions, Science, and Secularization".
Helena Blavatsky, the founder of the Theosophical Society, established an occult magazine entitled 'Lucifer' in London in 1887.
Set is the Egyptian God, of the desert, storms and Chaos. Set is one of many Gods worshipped by (some of) the ancient Egyptians. Each representing one quality of the whole. This is a concept that has re-appeared in other religions and myths every since, most notably in Neoplatonism and Hermeticism.
The Theistic Satanic church The Temple of Set (ToS), associates the deity Set with Satan, and this use of 'Set' is considered a modern association. The Temple of Set, and Setians in general, consider Set, the Eyptian God, to be the real dark Lord behind the name Satan. Setians use the same symbol of Satanism, that is, the inverted pentagram.
The ToS was a break-away group from the Church of Satan (CoS), created in 1975 by High Priest Michael Aquino, 'after Anton LaVey had offended many of its [CoS] members by turning The Church of Satan into a tool for his personal expression and financial income.'
One commentator has described it thus: 'The ToS was part of the CoS and broke away - mainly because many wanted to really explore the darkness - and there were those who knew first hand of these primal forces and wanted to call them into action, the CoS was attempting to cultivate a non-spiritual approach and did not want any part of it. Thats when the those who wanted real magic left. The CoS is nothing more than a carnival act and theraputic psychodrama at the most - the ToS are the authentic "satanists".'
In the 1950s Anton LaVey formed a group called the Order of the Trapezoid, which later evolved into the governing body of the Church of Satan. From 1975 (?) onwards, this Order became a sub group of The Temple of Set. The Order of the Trapezoid describes itself as 'A Chivalric Order of Knighthood Dedicated to the Prince of Darkness and the Black Flame.'
Eric Kauschen is the current Grandmaster of the Order of the Trapezoid.
The history of the symbolism with the O.Tr. is discussed on the order's web site below, including references to Wewelsburg Castle.
Dubious allegations of sympathy with the Nazis and obsession with Nazi occultism are discussed on the Satanism and the Far Right page.
Ba'alBa'al, for example, was an God worshipped in ancient Carthage. The Carthaginians' Baal worship is mentioned in the Old Testament - referred to as 'Baal' and 'Baal-zebub'. The name Ba'al has also been associated with a number of other Gods, including the Roman God, Saturn. There is a book of Beleil in the Satanic Bible (atheistic of course!) which links Ba'al to LaVey Satanism. Theistic Satanism, for example, the Church of Azazel (who define Azazel as Satan), believes Belial (i.e. Beliel, Ba'al) to refer to the down-to-earth and practical side of Satan.
A bronze figurine of Baal, right arm raised is shown below, dating to 14th-12th centuries, found in Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit).
The demon Bael, from Collin de Plancy's Dictionnaire Infernal (1862) is shown below.
Beelzebub as depicted in Collin de Plancy's Dictionnaire Infernal (Paris, 1825) is shown below.
Various Roman Gods have been associated with being Satan, including Saturn and Venus. The Greek and Roman Gods were part of the respective Greek and Roman pagan mythos.
Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. Anunit, Atarsamain and Esther are alternative names for Ishtar. Ishtar is a goddess of fertility, love, and war. In the Babylonian pantheon, she 'was the divine personification of the planet Venus' (the planet often associated with Lucifer). Ishtar a Goddess worshipped by Wiccans and other neo-pagans, and is said to represent Mother Earth, as all ancient 'Goddesses' are said to be aspects of the Goddess (i.e. Mother Earth). The detail of the Ishtar-Gate : a lion, symbol of the goddess Ishtar - is shown above.
Joseph Campbell, a more recent popularizer of mythology, equates Ishtar, Inanna, and Aphrodite, and he draws a parallel between the violent yet loving Hindu goddess Kali, the Egyptian goddess Isis who nurses Horus, and the Babylonian goddess Ishtar who nurses the god Tammuz.'
The deity pairs is a concept that is common to both Babylonian mythology (Marduk slaying Tiamat into two pieces, creating both heaven and earth), and Egyptian mythology and the Ogdoad.
This concept is also seen in the Aeons of Gnosticism.
Ishtar/Astarte is also revered by many modern Theistic Satanists, probably because 'Astaroth' is a high-ranking demon according to various well-known grimoires. Ishtar is not revered as the white-light (Luciferian) Goddess of the white magic Wiccans, but as the more multi-faceted Goddess revered by the other Wiccans, the Goddess of natural forces here on Earth, 'Mother Nature' in all Her aspects, both beautiful and fierce.
Above is the painting Lilith (1892), by John Collier.
Lilith is a mythological female Mesopotamian storm demon associated with wind and was thought to be a bearer of disease, illness, and death. The figure of Lilith first appeared in a class of wind and storm demons or spirits as Lilitu, in Sumer, circa 3000 BC. Many scholars place the origin of the phonetic name 'Lilith' at somewhere around 700 BC. In medieval Jewish demonology, Lilith was considered to be the a night demon, the Queen of the demons, the wife of Satan/Samael, and the mother of succubi. and as a screech owl in the KJV. She is also apocryphally the first wife of Adam.
Since the 1970s, Lilith has attracted many worshippers, including both Theistic Satanists, Neo-Pagans and even ethnically Jewish feminists, often now being associated with vampires (very fashionable these days for some reason!)
The vast majority of Lilith's worshippers are not Satanists. Yet they celebrate a medieval myth of Lilith that is remarkably similar to the Islamic myth of Satan/Iblis. Lilith and the Islamic Satan were both said to have disobeyed God in the exact same way, namely by refusing to bow down before Adam. Today, Lilith is seen by many as a feminist role model. Her worshippers today also associate Her with sexuality and sexual freedom, especially nonreproductive sex and various traditionally forbidden forms of sexuality. www.theisticsatanism.com/CoAz/belief/risingGods.html#Lilith
The Church of Satan incorporates Lilith in her kabbalistic (also qabalistic) Zohar role as the wife of Samael (Satan). Here, she is featured in the symbol of the church, the Baphomet sigil. This pentagram was first published by Stanislas de Guaita in La Clef de la Magie Noire in 1897.
In some Gnostic texts, Samael is the name used to described Demiurge, the 'blind one'.
Baphomet is a name of a deity of unknown origin. The name Baphomet traces back to the end of the Crusades, when the medieval order of the Knights Templar was suppressed by King Philip IV of France. On Friday, October 13, 1307, King Philip had many French Templars simultaneously arrested, and then tortured into confessions. The name Baphomet comes up in several of these confessions, in reference to an idol of some type that the Templars were said to have been worshipping. The description of the object changed from confession to confession. Some Templars denied any knowledge of it. Others, under torture, described it as being either a severed head, a cat, or a head with three faces. 'Gargoyles' from Templar churches are shown below (the first from Lanleff, the second and third from St Merri). Did these 'gargoyles inspire Eliphas Levi? Or were these gargoyles actually depictions of Baphomet? Was Levi merely depicting Baphomet as he had been traditionally known? Or is it a 'coincidence'?
Source: Gargoyle sculpture from Templar Shrine, Unknown Photographer and location.
Some modern scholars believe the name was an Old French corruption and misspelling of the name Mahomet (Muhammad). However, it is unlikely that the Knights Templar, having fought with Muslims for many years, were going to worship Mohammed, a prophet, which is something Muslims do not even do. In the 19th Century, Jewish occult author Eliphas Levi drew an image of Baphomet as a 'Sabbatic Goat' deity (seen above), which was later associated with being the Baphomet of the Templars by many. This image was incorporated into the Waite Tarot deck as the Devil card. Aleister Crowley was fascinated by this image of Baphomet, and linked him to the Roman deity Harpocrates, and incorporated him into his Thelema religion.
Some speculation exists as to whether Eliphas Levi was in fact influenced by these gargoyles and his naming the figure Baphomet came only in the 19th century, rather than the concept or name existing at the time of the Templars. This is perhaps more plausible than the other way around.
The Knights Templar were considered by Anton LeVay to have contributed some symbolism and methodology to modern Satanism, but not so much in the way of teachings and theology. Anton LaVey includes reference to the Knights Templar in the introduction to The Satanic Bible.
We will probably never know exactly what the Knights Templar got up to behind closed doors, and to what extent they embraced other religions or occult or mystical practices. Much is made of the fact that they embraced occult and gnostic philosophies and this is the reason for their persecution. It is known that they did have contact with Cathar communities (the French Gnostic sect), and indeed many Cathars joined the Templars, as they saw them as an alternative source of power to the Catholic Church. It is likely that many Cathar beliefs were integrated in some capacity into those of various Templar groups. However, it is much more likely that the Templars were persecuted and had their assets seized because they had become too powerful and too rich, and were considered a threat by the monarchs and Catholic Church of the time, being somewhat independent as an organisation. They had accumulated vast sums of wealth over many years by acting as guards to protect travelling pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem, which had been recently captured by the Catholic Crusaders from Muslim territory, with acts of genocide on both sides. The Templars were nominally Catholic Christians, but their war-like approach was hardly in keeping with the Bible, in the same way that the spirit of the Crusades was not either. They were essentially protecting/profiteering from Christian tourists visiting annexed land. Over time they build up a network of Castles, in both Europe and also in the Middle East. The Templars were in no way hedonistic occultists, in the way that The Hellfire Club, LaVey Satanists or Crowley's Thelema followers were, and were sworn to a life of celebacy. Only a small percentage of the members of the Knights Templar were actually warrior knights, most having domestic type roles within the castles and domains that they controlled. Rose tinted views of the Templars are clearly not really very realistic and are highly speculative at best.
Albert Pike is quoted in op. cit., p. 734, teaching of the 28th Degree, referring to Baphomet as the Holy Spirit! Some argue that Pike used the modern view of Baphomet as an anti-Christian symbol. About Baphomet he says 'The Gnostics held that it [universal agent] composed the igneous [pertaining to fire] body of the Holy Spirit, and it was adored in the secret rites of the Sabbat or the Temple under the hieroglyphic figure of Baphomet or the hermaphroditic goat of Mendes .' Some modern Luciferians and Satanists consider Pike's definition of Baphomet to represent Satan.
Albert Pike wore a symbol of Baphomet around his neck.
This the same symbol he used next to his name.
This was similar to the symbol used often on his 33rd degree masonic notepaper.
This alleged 33rd degree notepaper symbol was identical to that used by Aleister Crowley as the Thelemic X symbol for Baphomet.
Below is an article about the history of the deity Baphomet, on the Blood of the Moon Gnostic-Voudon Temple blog site by a friend of mine:
Baphomet is the deity often associated with 'Left-Hand Path' occult movements of the last two centuries.
Above is a 2nd Century Roman copy (found in Pompei) of a 100BC Greek statue (attributed to Heliodorus) of Pan teaching his eromenos, the shepherd Daphnis, to play the panpipes.
Pan is a Greek deity, originally worshipped in the Arcadia area of ancient Greece. Pan is the half-goat 'herdsman' deity, often associated with playing the flute, and is the God of fertility and shepherds, as well as music; and also representing fear and dread to an extent. Pan no doubt influenced the concept of the oldest of Roman deities, Faunus, the di indigetes, who was a good spirit of the forest, plains, and fields. It is likely that the demonized images of the incubus, and the goat's head, horns and cloven hooves of Satan, depicted in much Christian literature and art, were taken from the images of the Pan. The Witches' Hammer no doubt took its inspiration from Pan when describing Satan.
The painting Pan, by Mikhail Vrubel (1900) is shown below.
The modern version of Pan worshipped by Wiccans is not really the same deity as the Greek Pan. The neo-pagan Pan is the Lord of the Woods, the Horned God, representative of the wild (animals and forests) and is probably an amalgamation of qualities of several ancient Gods. Wiccans in general tend to chiefly worship the Goddess, or mother nature, whilst also worshipping the Horned God as her counterpart, in a balanced 'yin and yang' manner (Dianic Wica diverging from this balance). Other deities, representing other qualities, are also worshipped, but probably to a slightly lesser extent.
Theistic Satans acknowledge that many of the qualities of the neo-pagan Pan are synonymous with Satan, they also credit other qualities to Satan such as science, technology and the human 'will'.
Above is the painting Ungeheuer Leviathan, Behemoth und Ziz Bibelillustration by Ulm, 1238.
Above is a drawing of Leviathan, often found in Grimoires.
Above is the painting "Destruction of Leviathan" from 1865, engraving by Gustave Doré.
iled") is a 'Biblical sea monster referred to in the Old Testament (Psalm 74:13-14; Job 41; Isaiah 27:1). The word leviathan has become synonymous with any large sea monster or creature. In the novel Moby-Dick it refers to great whales, and in Modern Hebrew, it means simply "whale".'
The Christian interpretation of Leviathan is often considered to be a demon or monster associated with Satan or the Devil, and is regarded by some to be the same as the monster Rahab (Isaiah 51:9).
The Gnostic Luciferian (but in actuality Polytheistic Satanic) Order of Phosphorus regards Leviathan as the coiling Dragon or crooked serpent, which is the dreaming mind.
Marduk slaying Tiamat is pictured in the above.
Tiamat is often regarded as an 'evil' deity, with Marduk being the 'good' Babylonian deity counterpart. Perhaps in this role, Tiamat represents a Christian interpretation of the Devil. The cult of Marduk existed from approximately 1500 BC. Marduk was associated by the Romans with the planet Jupiter.
NammuWorship of Tiamat may have begun with the Cult of Nammu (Sumerian cult).
'In Sumerian mythology, Nammu (more properly Namma) is the Sumerian creation goddess. If the Babylonian creation myth Enûma Elish is based on a Sumerian myth, which seems likely, Nammu is the Sumerian goddess of the primeval sea that gave birth to An (heaven) and Ki (earth) and the first gods. She was probably the first personification of the constellation which the Babylonians later called Tiamat and the Greeks called Cetus and represented the Apsu, the fresh water ocean which the Sumerians believed lay beneath the earth, the source of life-giving water and fertility in a country with almost no rainfall. She is attended by seven minor goddesses. Nammu bore An a son, Enki. She and her Enki created mankind as assistants for the gods. She moulded clay collected and brought it to life, thus creating mankind.'
Enki, the son of Nammu, is the Sumeran deity whose name literally means Lord of the Earth. Enki was later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology. Enki was originally chief god of the city of Eridu. He was the deity of crafts, water, intelligence and creation. He is the champion of mankind. Perhaps there are parallels to the concept of Prometheus or (non-Biblical view of) Satan. Enki is shown above, wearing the horned crown. Some forms of Gnostic Luciferianism, such as Bestian Gnosticism, regards Enki as a Lucifer, but does not worship him. Many Theistic Satanists today worship Enki, including the now largely Neo-Nazi Satanist group Joy of Satan Ministries.
Prometheus is regarded by most Gnostic Luciferians as a Lucifer or Aeon, and there are some parallels to the (non-Biblical) concept of Satanic intelligence.
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